Archived Data

The Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute has been engaged for nearly 45 years in Wilderness science. This history of research has resulted in countless publications, papers and conferences. However, Wilderness research itself produces another vital resource: data. In order to ensure the accessibility and longevity of scientific data, the Leopold Institute has worked to archive within a digital database. Raw data sets, survey instruments, coding manuals, and study plans now reside physically and electronically within the Leopold Institute. The more accessible raw data are, the more added value can be realized by current and future analysis possibilities. The value of research data only grows over time, as access to raw data and metadata is vital for understanding the changing dynamic of wilderness, and how it is impacted by the environment and people.

For research conducted or funded by the Leopold Institute, national standards are used developed by the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC). The Leopold Institute uses the software Metavist (https://metavist2.codeplex.com/ ) a program that assists in the creation of metadata. The result is data about data. Metadata are used to answer such questions as what data were collected, how they were collected, why they were collected, how reliable they are, and what issues should be accounted for when working with them. These are the highest quality standards to create long term accessible and understandable data.

1. Social conditions, conflict, and preference data for users in the Rattlesnake National Recreation Area in 1989

  • Abstract:This data publication contains visitor preference for naturalness and social conditions for their visitor experience in the Rattlesnake National Recreation Area (RNRA) and Wilderness in Montana. Random onsite interviews were conducted to gather basic on-site information regarding length of visit, travel destinations, and group characteristics. If willing to participate, interviewees were sent mailback questionnaires which contained more details on classification of visitors by activities participated in, preference for conditions, factors influencing the quality of their experience, and overall feelings of the RNRA. A set of supplemental questions were then sent to all participants who returned the mailback questionnaire, because it was discovered that user conflict between mountain bike riders and hikers was present. The supplemental questions aimed to understand the underlying reasons for that conflict.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and relationships.
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2015-0002

2. John Muir Wilderness and Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Parks Wilderness: 1990 visitor survey data

  • Abstract: A long-term problem that confronted wilderness managers in the early 1990s, and continues today, is the displeasure hikers express about meeting recreational livestock (primarily horses and mules) and seeing impacts of stock use. This data set contains the responses from a visitor survey of 891 participants who spent time in Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Parks Wilderness or John Muir Wilderness during 1990. Participants were a mix of hikers and stock users, and much of the information gathered was in regard to hiker/stock user interaction and preference.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2014-0021
3. Social conditions, conflict, and preference data for users in the Rattlesnake National Recreation Area in 1994
  • Abstract: The data available here highlight visitor preferences for naturalness and social conditions for their visitor experience in the Rattlesnake National Recreation Area (RNRA) and Wilderness in Montana. Mountain bikers and hikers in the RNRA were surveyed in 1994 to measure conflict between various user groups visiting the RNRA. Random onsite interviews were conducted to gather basic on-site information regarding length of visit, travel destinations, and group characteristics. If willing to participate, interviewees were sent mailback questionnaires which contained more details on classification of visitors by activities participated in, preference for conditions, encounters with others, factors influencing the quality of their experience, and overall feelings of the RNRA. This study is, in part, a replication of a similar study done in the same area in 1989.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships.
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2015-0003

4. Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SEKI) Wilderness: 2011 visitor survey data

  • Abstract:This data publication contains data from a 2011 quantitative study on Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, in California, on wilderness user perceptions of existing wilderness quality and existing management practices and facilities. Data include individual visitor and group demographics, frequency of visits, and trip characteristics such as: activities, use of technology, length of trip, size of group, type of fuel used, and method of deterring negative bear-human interaction.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships.
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2014-0024

5. Oral history of changes in wilderness conditions, use, and management in the Sequoia Kings Canyon National Parks: 2010 interviews

  • Abstract: This data publication describes the condition, use, and management of the two wilderness areas within Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SEKI). The project examined local/experiential knowledge collected through oral history interviews in 2010 to track how the character and quality of the Parks’ wilderness, as well as visitors’ uses and experiences have changed over time. Included are recordings of the actual interviews, the field notes taken during the interview, as well as a transcript of the audio interviews.
  • Priority Categories: Relationships
  • Found at: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2017-0049

6. Qualitative and quantitative 2004-2005 data on Yakutat residents, local relationships to the Situk River, and management implications

  • Abstract: This study examines relationships to place between residents of Yakutat, Alaska and the Situk River. It documents an assessment of local perspectives on use, conflict, and management issues on the river. Initial semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with targeted community members in 2004 to gain an understanding of local perspectives. These interviews were used to help develop a quantitative survey of 225 random community members in 2005. This data publication contains the results of the quantitative survey, which includes data such as actual and preferred activities in the area, level of management services of facilities, desired changes in management services, the importance of the Situk River to the community, and similar local perspectives.
  • Priority Categories: Relationships
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2015-0004

7. Bob Marshall Wilderness Complex (BMWC) 1982 visitor characteristics, attitudes, and use patterns

  • Abstract: The data included in this publication include visitor characteristics, attitudes towards the wilderness experience, and use patterns for wilderness visitors to the Bob Marshall Wilderness Complex (BMWC) in 1982. Visitors were asked to provide contact information for a mail-back survey. Questions included that of age, education, types of groups, club memberships, attitudes such as satisfaction with wilderness experience, as well as use pattern questions such as method of travel, length of stay, and activities engaged in during trip. Over 700 responses were obtained. In part, the data were collected to replicate a 1970 study in the same area. The format of the surveys and data was informed by the earlier study for later trend anaylsis.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships
  • Found at: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2017-0015/

8. Social conditions and preference data for visitors to three wilderness areas in the southern United States in 1989-1990

  • Abstract: Visitors to the Cohutta Wilderness in Georgia, Caney Creek Wilderness in Arkansas, and Upland Island Wilderness in Texas were surveyed to gather baseline data on use and user characteristics. Sampling took place between May and November 1989 for both Cohutta and Caney Creek Wilderness areas, and between October 1989 and February 1990 for the Upland Island Wilderness. During the sampling period, visitors were interviewed as they entered or exited the Wilderness and asked if they were willing to fill out a survey that would be mailed to them. Included in this data publication are the results of the onsite interviews as well as the mailback surveys. For the Upland Island Wilderness there are also results from postcard surveys for cases when a local interview was not possible. Data include length of visit, group size, activities participated in, social encounter levels, availability of substitute sites, place of residence, sociodemographic information, previous wilderness experience, level of attachment for wilderness, and visitor preferences for wilderness conditions.
  • Priority Categories: Relationships
  • Found at: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2017-0051

9. Data from a 1990 visitor survey in the Desolation Wilderness to determine visitor trends, and preferences for wilderness conditions and experience

  • Abstract: This package contains trend, characteristic, activity and preference data collected as part of a 1990 survey of visitors to the Desolation Wilderness in the Sierra Nevada of Northern California. Permit and mailback surveys were used to provide the data from a systematic sample of visitors with the required use permit (permit holders) and a sample of party members (group members without the permit). A convenient sample of visitors who did not comply with the permit requirement (entered without permit) were asked to complete a short onsite survey which allowed for comparison to those who did obtain the permit.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships
  • Found at: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2017-0057

10. Shining Rock Wilderness: 1990 visitor survey data

  • Abstract:  This data publication contains 1990 survey data for two different studies conducted in the Shining Rock Wilderness, which is in the Pisgah National Forest of western North Carolina. The first is a trend study to understand changes in visitor characteristics and the other was a study to understand knowledge and behavior about campsite selection and low-impact camping. Data for the ‘trend study’ were collected through a survey of visitors to the Shining Rock Wilderness. Visitors were contacted at trailheads, and those that agreed to participate in the study received a mailback survey, resulting in two data sets from two different survey instruments: visitor contact data and mailback survey data. Data for the second, ‘behavior and knowledge study’, was obtained from contacts and observations at campsites by Wilderness rangers. Two data sets (from two different survey instruments) were the result of the onsite information and observations and the mailback survey..
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships
  • Found at: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2018-0011/

11. Use characteristics, visitor preferences, and conflict between horse users and hikers in the Charles C. Deam Wilderness Area: 1990-1991 visitor survey data

  • Abstract: The Charles C. Deam Wilderness area is located on the Hoosier National Forest in Indiana. There has been historic use of this area by both hikers and horse riders, however there was substantial concern about the interaction and conflict between these two groups in this wilderness area. Between the summers of 1990 and 1991 a mailback questionnaire was sent to people visiting the Charles C. Deam Wilderness are for recreational purposes to investigate visitor use characterstics and preferences about their wilderness experience. Data include visitor activity, visitor characteristics, interaction with other groups, opinions regarding management policies, current wilderness conditions, preferred wilderness conditions, items influencing visitor quality, as well as user perception of similarities and differences between hikers and horse users.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships.
  • Found at: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2017-0013

12. Human values, behavior, and attitudes: Data from a survey of visitors within Oregon's Eagle Cap Wilderness

  • Abstract: This data publication contains data from a study of visitors to Oregon's Eagle Cap Wilderness in 1993. Between June and November, visitors were asked to participate in a survey asking questions about their trip and views of the wilderness. Specifically they were asked questions about the number of people and groups seen during their trip, general feelings toward solitude and the wilderness, the level of solitude and wilderness solitude experienced on their trip, things that influenced the solitude on their trip, general feelings toward the management of the wilderness, and how much (if at all) evidence of human use of the wilderness detracted from their enjoyment of the trip.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships.
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2015-0014

13. Desolation Wilderness: data from 1997-1998 visitor response to fees, fee demonstration project

  • Abstract: This data publication contains responses to a 1997-1998 survey of 634 overnight visitors and 789 day-use visitors to Desolation Wilderness in the Sierra Nevada of northern California. This mailback survey addressed visitors' knowledge regarding level of fees, fee administration method, and potential uses of fees. It was a systematic sample of overnight and day-use permits. This study used an ‘alternate forms’ methodology (Form A/Form B) based on use of fees to maintain current conditions or to “improve” conditions.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships
  • Found at:  https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2018-0015

14. Motorboat use on the Main Salmon River: Data from a study for the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness

  • Abstract: This publication contains data from a two-phase 1998-1999 study in the Frank Church Wilderness which surveyed visitors about the use of motorboats and jet boats on the Salmon River. This study was done in coordination with the Western Whitewater Association (WWA) and Northwest River Runners (NRR), which are jet boat organizations based in Boise and Lewiston, ID, respectively. Information was gathered regarding visitor demographics and opinions on river use. Phase I included interviews with six leadership members of the WWA. Included in this data publication are notes from two of those interviews and excerpts from all six interviews. Phase II included sending surveys to jet boat users. Data include the results of these mailback surveys. Follow-up telephone surveys were conducted if the mailback surveys were not returned and those results have also been included.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships
  • Found at: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2017-0048

15. Data on wilderness experience stewardship from a 2001-2002 visitor survey at Gates of the Arctic National Park & Preserve

  • Abstract: Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve (GAAR) is a remote area in the Brooks Range of northern Alaska. GAAR contains more than 7 million acres of federally designated wilderness, but hosts only about 600 recreation visitors per year. A two-year, two-phase project was implemented at GAAR to provide scientific input to visitor management and backcountry planning. In phase I (2001) qualitative methods (in-depth interviews) were used to develop an understanding of the nature of visitor experiences and to identify significant influences on those experiences. Results identified five broad experience dimensions and several potential factors of influence upon those experiences. In phase II of the research project (2002), a quantitative survey of 201 recreation visitors and 18 commercial operators in GAAR was conducted to investigate and validate the distribution of phase I results. Phase I produced data in the form of interviews, transcribed verbatim, and sound recordings, containing interview excerpts. Phase II data was generated from survey responses, in the form of text files.
  • Priority Categories: Relationships
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2015-0038

16. Public's trust in wildland fire and fuel management decisions: data from a 2004 study in the Bitterroot Valley, Montana. 

  • Abstract: Recent research has called for a more comprehensive approach to natural resource management that balances social, ecological, and economic obligations. Within this framework, this 2004 study examines the public's trust as a measure of managerial success, and attempts to identify and measure the components that most influence it. A review of trust literature yielded 14 attributes that were hypothesized to contribute to trust, in three dimensions. Based on this review, a telephone survey was developed and administered in the summer of 2004 to a sample of Montana residents in Ravalli county, living adjacent to the Bitterroot National Forest (N=1152). This data publication contains the 2004 survey results with a weighting variable based upon the distribution of the sample across the study area.
  • Priority Categories: Wildland Fire and Relationships
  • Found at: https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2018-0013

17. Gates of the Arctic Kobuk River: 2001 sport hunter survey data

  • Abstract: Between August and September 2001, sport hunters were asked to respond to a mail-back questionnaire about hunting on the Kobuk River in the Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve in Alaska. This data publication contains the results of this survey, which focused on conflict: between user groups, with managers, and with management policies. Questions included experience use history, visit characteristics, influences on experience, hunting motivations, support for limitations, and demographics. A high response rate to an attempt to survey the population of hunters (52 people were asked to complete the survey and 49 responses were obtained) developed knowledge of hunter experience and contributes to understanding of resource use in the park.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships.
  • Found at: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2017-0066

18. Bob Marshall Wilderness Complex (BMWC) 2004 visitor preference and usage data along with characteristics and attitudes towards Fire Management

  • Abstract: Research at the Bob Marshall Wilderness Complex (BMWC) in Montana explored differences in recreation visitors’ attitudes towards the use of management-ignited prescribed fires in the wilderness. This data publication contains the results of both on-site and mail-back surveys during the summer and fall of 2004. Visitors to thirteen trailheads at the BMWC were asked to provide information on whether they used an outfitter, length of stay, mode of travel, education level, and previous experience level at the Bob Marshall Wilderness Complex. The 396 respondents to the on-site survey were then sent mail-back questionnaires asking questions regarding their stay and and visitor satisfaction with wilderness conditions encountered, both resource and social density conditions, and preference of various policies and fire management actions.
  • Priority Categories: Wildand Fire, Recreation, and Relationships.
  • Found at: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2017-0016

19. Three Sisters, Mt. Jefferson, and Mt. Washington: Survey Data from Oregon Wilderness Visitors in 1991

  • Abstract: This data publication contains 1991 permit information and mail-back survey responses from visitors to the Three Sisters, Mt. Washington, and Mt. Jefferson Wilderness areas in Oregon. The survey data collected include visitor characteristics such as destination, length of stay, group size, mode of travel, camping preferences, and recreational activities during visit. Data also include visitor preferences for the management of these areas and related questions, such as evidence of recreation, number of visitors encountered, desired number of visitors to be encountered, management problems observed, and permit related questions.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships.
  • Found at: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2017-0009

20. Qualitative and quantitative 2004-2005 data on Yakutat residents, local relationships to the Situk River, and management implications

  • Abstract: This study examines relationships to place between residents of Yakutat, Alaska and the Situk River. It documents an assessment of local perspectives on use, conflict, and management issues on the river. Initial semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with targeted community members in 2004 to gain an understanding of local perspectives. These interviews were used to help develop a quantitative survey of 225 random community members in 2005. This data publication contains the results of the quantitative survey, which includes data such as actual and preferred activities in the area, level of management services of facilities, desired changes in management services, the importance of the Situk River to the community, and similar local perspectives.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships
  • Found at: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2015-0004

21. Measuring managers' perceptions of llama use in wild areas - data from 1993

  • Abstract: This data publication contains the results of a 1993 survey of Forest Service and Park Service managers across the United States and their perceptions of llama use in wild areas. Over 200 mailback surveys were returned from managers representing more than 150 different wilderness areas and 25 states. Questions were related to manager perceptions about trends on llama use, seriousness of impacts, current llama management strategies, and specific management challenges anticipated. Additional questions related to other pack animals were also included.
  • Priority Categories: Relationships
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2016-0019

22. Okefenokee Wilderness 2001 - 2001 Data from a Study of Okefenoke Wilderness Visitors’ Characteristics, Perceptions, and Management Preferences

  • Abstract: The Okefenokee Wilderness has several characteristics that make it an ideal laboratory to study the interactions between recreationists, and the natural environment. Wilderness managers at Okefenokee have adopted regulations that lead overnight visitors to expect and receive high-quality experiences of solitude. Negatives of this approach are that freedom of movement and exploration of the wilderness are highly restricted; many of those seeking overnight permits are denied them, and interaction with unrestricted day users is generally negative. Managers wanted to assess visitor opinions about management and use of the Okefenokee, and gain information on the characteristics and experiences of visitors. This study is composed of research aimed to answer those managerial questions.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and relationships.
  • Not yet available online

23. Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness: 2007 visitor survey data

  • Abstract: In 2007, a team consisting of Superior National Forest managers, Forest Service scientists, and academic partners surveyed visitors to the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in northern Minnesota. The BWCAW receives the most use of any wilderness in the country, and has been the location of several studies. This 2007 study is similar to previous BWCAW studies in 1969 and 1991. This data publication includes: (1) a data set intended to determine trends in overnight use and users, and perceptions of wilderness conditions, as well as exploring new issues (e.g., recent wildfires, recreation visitor fees, and tree blowdown events); (2) a data set which examined day use visitor characteristics and preferences and; (3) a data set focused on understanding various aspects of user relationships, experiences, and attitudes about wilderness.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and relationships
  • Found at: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2018-0008

24.  Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness: 1991 visitor survey data

  • Abstract: The Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) is in the Superior National Forest in northern Minnesota. The BWCAW receives the most use of any wilderness in the country, and has been the location of several studies. The data included in this publication are from a 1991 study aimed at two purposes: (1) to replicate, as nearly as possible, a similar 1969 study in the BWCAW and; (2) to examine the effects of a Forest Service proposal to reduce the number of entrance permits in hopes of increasing opportunities for solitude and reducing resource damage. Between May and September 1991, a sample of visitors was obtained from face-to-face contacts at boat-launch points or trailheads. Mailback surveys were then sent out to these visitors. Data were collected from the same 14 entry points as the 1969 study on approximately the same days of the use season; additionally, the sample was expanded to represent lower use level access points better than they had in 1969 to accomplish purpose number two above. This data publication includes the results from 295 mailback surveys.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and relationships.
  • Found at: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2018-0006

25. Oregon Marketing Study 1999 - Public Purpose Recreation Marketing: Public and Public Lands Relationships in a 1999 Study of Oregon and Washington

  • Abstract: This project focused on developing a feasible and appropriate framework for the application of marketing principles and approaches to public recreation management. In doing so, it hoped to demonstrate a logical and valid procedure that can be adopted and applied in future situations. In late 1999, telephone interviews were conducted with residents of the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, using trust, commitment, social responsibility and support to develop the market segments. The collection and analysis of marketing data can have a profound influence on planning and management decisions and this study illustrates an approach that reflects both public policy mandates and methodological integrity.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships
  • Not yet available online

26. Data from monitoring inter-group encounters at the Alpine Lakes Wilderness in 1991

  • Abstract: Many managers face the challenge of monitoring rates of visitor encounters in wilderness. This study, conducted in 1991 at Alpine Lakes Wilderness in Washington State: (1) provides estimates of encounter rates through use of several monitoring methods, (2) determines the relationship between the various measures of encounter rates, and (3) determines the relationship between various indirect predictors of encounter rates and actual encounter rates. In order to develop a better understanding of the relationship between these various monitoring methods, this study used exit surveys, trip diaries, wilderness ranger observations, trained observers, mechanical counters, trailhead count observations, and parking lot vehicle counts. This data publication includes the data associated with this study, which found that encounter rates differed dramatically from weekdays to weekend days at high-use places studied. Estimates of encounter rates also varied substantially across methods used. Rather than conclude what method is best, this report seeks to help the manager decide which method is most appropriate for use in a particular wilderness, given the issues being addressed. It should also help alleviate some of the problems managers have in prescribing monitoring systems, by forcing more precise definition of indicators.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships.
  • Found at: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2018-0005

27. Togiak 2001- Understanding Land Use Conflicts in Togiak National Wildlife Refuge in 2001, Qualitative and Quantitative Data

  • Abstract: Much of the prior research concerning subsistence uses has focused on allocation of resources, rather than understanding conflict. While scarcity of resources is a factor in many conflicts, there are also social and cultural issues that are often unaddressed. This research focused on conflicts from the perspective of human interactions, not from the perspective of law enforcement or allocation of land and resources. Case study research was conducted concerning land use conflicts in wilderness, particularly conflicts between subsistence uses and recreation uses in Alaska’s Togiak National Wildlife Refuge. A parallel project was conducted in Finland; the final product is to be a cross-case comparison
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships
  • Not yet available online

28.  Auyuittuq and Quttinirpaaq National Parks in the eastern Arctic Nunavut Region of Canada: 2003-2004 visitor experience study

  • Abstract: This data publication contains audio and transcriptions of in-depth qualitative interviews of visitors, local residents, and scientists at Auyuittuq National Park (ANP) and Quttinirpaaq National Park (QNP) of Nunavut, Canada conducted in 2003. The interviews were meant to obtain information and feedback regarding visitor experiences. This data publication also contains survey responses from visitors to ANP in 2004. The total population of visitors to QNP was only 20 in 2004, while 16 of those completed the survey they were not included in analysis or the data published here. The survey data include visitor demographics and experiences in the parks as well as visitor opinions of the various management actions.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships
  • Found at: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2017-0069

29. Data collected in 2012 using Q-methodology to identify the importance of water-based ecosystem services derived from the Shoshone National Forest

  • Abstract: This data publication contains the results of a 2012 study of the preferences of 96 stakeholders (e.g., farmers, ranchers, outfitters and guides, average citizens, natural resource managers and scientists, county commissioners) from Wyoming and Montana for 34 water-based ecosystem services. The ecosystem services were identified through literature review, focus groups, and pilot tests, and the list of services was considered to be a representation of the full range of water-based ecosystem services derived from the Shoshone National Forest in northwest Wyoming. Data include: (1) demographic data from each stakeholder (e.g., gender, age, education); (2) importance assigned to 34 water-based ecosystem services on a scale from ‘most important’ to ‘most unimportant’ and; (3) perceptions (i.e., qualitative data from short interviews) about the potential impact of various drivers on the flow of their two ‘most important’ ecosystem services.
  • Priority Categories: Relationships
  • Found at: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2017-0056

30. Frank Church Wilderness of No Return Q-study 2012 – Data collected in 2012 for identifying preferences for wilderness-based ecosystem services derived from the Frank Church River of No Return Wilderness.

  • Abstract: The dataset presented here highlights the preferences of stakeholders from communities surrounding the Frank Church Wilderness for a broad range of wilderness-based ecosystem services. The ecosystem services were identified through literature review, focus groups, and pilot tests, and the list of services was considered to be a representation of the full range of wilderness ecosystem services derived from the Frank Church Wilderness. In addition, there is demographic data from each stakeholder, as well as perceptions about the potential impact of various drivers on the flow of their most important ecosystem services.
  • Priority Categories: Relationships
  • Not yet available online

31. Wrangell-St. Elias 2002-2003 - 2002-2003 Data on Wilderness Visitor Experiences at Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve in the Alaska Regional Context

  • Abstract: Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve (WRST) is directed by the mission “to preserve and protect the ecological integrity and heritage resources of a vast ecosystem in south-central Alaska, while providing for public use in a wilderness setting” (NPS, 2000). The fulfillment of this mission rests on appropriate park management and planning. Phase I and II of this study were developed to assist in the drafting of a new Backcountry Management Plan for the park. The basic objectives were to better understand visitor expectations and experiences, with specific attention paid to inter-visitor conflict (during and preceding the fall hunting season). The research proceeded along qualitative-interpretative lines, and consisted of a series of interviews conducted with visitors as they entered and exited WRST. Each interview was tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim, so that the resulting texts were the primary data from the study. The study was initially proposed by Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, and then jointly developed and funded by the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute.
  • Priority Categories: Relationships
  • Not yet available online

32. Data from 2014 Wilderness Management Survey: Science needs, training needs, and demographics of managers

  • Abstract: Stewards and managers of wilderness areas within the National Wilderness Preservation System (NWPS) were selected for surveying in 2014 in order to provide input for the development of the 2014 Inter-agency Strategic Plan for the NWPS. Research focused on major challenges in stewardship and planning, and where managers saw rising needs for specific training or research. Additionally, managers provided optional, follow-up data regarding the previous NWPS Strategic Plan, from 1995, and the degree to which its goals and values were enacted.
  • Priority Categories: Delivery and application
  • Found at: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2017-0055

33. National river recreation study data: a nationwide survey of river recreation use from 1977-1984

  • Abstract: This data publication contains data collected as part of the National River Recreation Study (NRRS), which was a program of long-term research on river recreationists nationwide. The North Central Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, St. Paul, Minnesota (NCFES) conducted the overall study between 1977 and 1984. Both onsite interviews and mail back surveys were used to collect data, which included recreationist responses from over 69 surveys that took place in 23 states across the United States on 57 different river segments. Participants were asked questions about river usage (how often visited, type of watercraft used, etc.), opinions of location (erosion of stream banks, litter on banks, too many homes along river, etc.), changes people might like to see (more parking at access points, post signs warning of hazard, etc.), why they visit the location, and potential damage found or conflicts with other visitors.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation, descriptive
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2014-0007

34. Campsite condition data for the San Rafael Wilderness

  • Abstract: Campsites within the central portion of the San Rafael Wilderness of California were assessed over a 9 day period in April 1999. All but one of 22 semi-developed camping areas were visited. These camping areas consist of one or several long-established campsites, with stoves, and are located on maps of the area. In addition, informal user-created campsites were located and assessed in other places that appeared amenable to camping. A total of 91 campsites were located and briefly assessed, 30 of which were within the 21 camping areas that were visited. The other 61 sites were informal campsites. This probably represents at least 75% of all campsites in the San Rafael Wilderness. This data publication contains data for the 50 campsites that showed permanent damage, such as vegetation loss. These sites underwent a rapid assessment which included the following basic campsite measurements: condition class, vegetation type, soils, dominant species, landform, distance to trail, distance to water, number of fire rings, tree damage, number of fire scars, number of nearby trails, and other standard campsite data. Within 19 of the 21 semi-developed camping areas that were visited, a single campsite was chosen for a detailed assessment which included collecting the following data: tree scars, exposed roots, vegetation and soil coverage, and soil penetration. Similar data were collected for comparable control sites.
  • Priority Categories: campsite condition assessment
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2014-0006

35. Campsite condition data for the Salmon River in the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness

  • Abstract: This data publication includes conditions of campsites used by boaters along the Middle Fork and Main Salmon Rivers in the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness, Idaho. Campsite conditions were first monitored between 1995 and 1996, and again from 2001 to 2004, and then 2008 to 2009. Overall, 13 campsites and 4 control sites were assessed on the Main Salmon River, and 11 campsites and 6 controls sites were assessed on the Middle Fork Salmon River. Data include basic campsite measurements such as condition class, vegetation type of the camp area and satellite area, number of trees and level of tree damage, number of fire rings, information on the number and condition of nearby trails, and other standard campsite data.
  • Priority Categories: campsite condition assessment.
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2014-0004

36. Campsite condition data for the Superstition Wilderness

  • Abstract:Between November 2005 and March 2007, a Rapid Site Inventory (RSI) was performed on 459 campsites in the Superstition Wilderness Area of the Tonto National Forest in Arizona. This assessment of 90-95% of the campsites in this wilderness was a quick site inventory including primarily presence/absence response variables. Data include standard campsite characteristics such as location, size, dominant vegetation, ground cover, presence of water, visibility of management actions, and proximity to other features (springs, trails, etc.). Other measurements include presence of litter and waste, quantity and size of human disturbance to soils/rocks/vegetation, campfire size and quantity, dead and down fuel size and quantity, damage to shrubs, vandalism, livestock impacts, equestrian impacts, presence of artifacts or rock art, and other recreational impact data. In addition to the RSI, an extreme RSI was also completed on each site, which included a rating for groundcover disturbance, tree damage, and size of disturbed area. This was done to be consistent with the USDA Forest Service's Minimum Protocol for campsite monitoring.
  • Priority Categories: Rapid Site Inventory (RSI) and monitoring.
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2014-0005

37. Campsite condition data for four South-Central Wildernesses in Arkansas, Illinois, and Missouri

  • Abstract:This data publication contains conditions of 91 campsites spread over four wilderness areas in the South-Central United States. Recreation impact was studied in Caney Creek, Upper Buffalo, Hercules Glades, and Garden of the Gods Wildernesses. Campsites were measured in 1993-1994, and Caney Creek campsites were measured again in 2007. Data include basic campsite measurements such as condition class, vegetation type, soils, dominant species, landform, distance to trail, distance to water, number of fire rings, tree damage, and other standard campsite data. A subsample (21 sites) of the non-trace campsites were assessed in more detail and data such as campsite area, ground vegetation (stone, forbs, grass, shrub, moss/lichen, etc.) and seedling counts were measured and similar data collected for a comparable control site. Additional measurements for these non-trace sites included tree counts by species and size as well as type of tree damage.
  • Priority Categories: campsite condition assessment and recreation impacts
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2013-0014

38. Campsite assessment data for backcountry campsites in Grand Canyon National Park

  • Abstract: This data product contains conditions of a sample of backcountry campsites in Grand Canyon National Park, which have been assessed three times so far, in 1984, 1989/1990 and 2005. The sample consists of 24 campsites that vary in how frequently they are used and in the vegetation type in which they are located. Measured data include plant species found as well as percent cover of vegetation, litter, bare soil, rock, and cryptogams. Physical soil properties such as bulk density, infiltration rate and soil moisture were also measured in 1984.
  • Priority Categories: conditions, trends, use, and environmental factors
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2012-0001

39. Baseline campsite data for sites near lakes in the Spanish Peaks portion of the Lee Metcalf Wilderness

  • Abstract: This data product contains the numbers and condition of campsites around lakes in the Spanish Peaks portion of the Lee Metcalf Wilderness in Montana. Measurements were taken in 1972, 1988, and again in 2004. Measurements include data such as campsite condition, vegetation type, distance to water, distance to trails, distance to nearest campsite, facility information, vegetation, soils, tree damage rating, max party size, type of use, etc.
  • Priority Categories: Campsite condition monitoring
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2012-0002

40. Campsite condition data for the Bob Marshall Wilderness

  • Abstract: This data product contains conditions of 36 campsites in low- to mid- elevation forests and grasslands in the Bob Marshall Wilderness, Montana. Campsites used in this study were used primarily by backpackers, private individuals with packstock, and commercial outfitters and their clients. Campsites were assessed in 1981 and 1990. Camp area, bare area, and extent of tree damage were measured. Tree seedlings, ground vegetation, duff, mineral soil exposure and compaction, species composition, and infiltration rates were also measured on campsites and comparable control sites.
  • Priority Categories: Campsite condition monitoring, specific use impacts, compare low- to high-elevation campsite impacts
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2012-0003

41. Campsite condition data for the Eagle Cap Wilderness

  • Abstract: This data product contains conditions of 26 campsites in forested sites in subalpine lake basins in the Eagle Cap Wilderness, Oregon. Campsites in this study were used primarily by backpackers and varied in usage level. Campsites were assessed in 1979, 1984, 1990, and 2005/2006 (campsites 1 and 2 were remeasured in 2011 and 2009, respectively). Basic campsite information, tree and seedling counts, tree damage, ground vegetation, duff, and species composition were measured on campsites and comparable control sites.
  • Priority Categories: Campsite conditions, trends, use, and environmental factors
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2012-0004

42. Campsite condition data for the Miller Peak Wilderness

  • Abstract: This data product contains baseline (2008) campsite conditions for all 44 campsites found along all trails other than the Sunnyside Canyon Trail in the Miller Peak Wilderness in Arizona. Measurements include basic campsite information such as groundcover disturbance, impact to standing trees and roots, and size of disturbed area. If campsites had more than minimal disturbance, other measurements were taken such as vegetation type, soils, dominant species, landform, distance to trail, distance to water, number of fire rings, tree damage, and other standard campsite data.
  • Priority Categories: Campsite conditions
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2012-0005

43. Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, 1977, 1989, 2001 and 2002 – Baseline campsite conditions and change over time

  • Abstract: This data product contains baseline campsite condition data and trend for campsites in the Bear Creek, Big Creek, and Sweeney Creek drainages in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, Montana. These drainages represent varied use intensity. Big Creek was selected as a high-use drainage. Bear Creek was considered to be moderate-use drainage and Sweeney Creek was considered a low-use drainage. In each drainage, the most likely places for camping were searched and all campsites in these areas were located. Measurements include basic campsite information such as groundcover disturbance, impact to standing trees and roots, and size of disturbed area. If campsites had more than minimal disturbance, other measurements were taken such as vegetation type, vegetation coverage, soils, dominant species, landform, distance to trail, distance to water, number of fire rings, tree damage, campsite disturbance, and other standard campsite data.
  • Priority Categories: Change in numbers of campsites and conditions
  • Not yet available online

44. Data product containing campsite assessments for "Effectiveness of a Confinement Strategy in Reducing Pack Stock Impacts at Campsites in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, Idaho"

  • Abstract: Measurements of ground cover conditions, tree impacts, and campsite conditions were taken in the Seven Lakes Basin in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness between 1993 and 1998 in order to assess bringing high levels of campsite impact into compliance with management standards. Specifically, data measurements included size of disturbed and bare areas, amount of bole scarring and root exposure on affected trees, percentage of natural and exotic vegetation cover, as well as number of live, dead, and cut trees and stumps. Campsite data collected included percentage of vegetation cover, mineral exposure, vegetation loss, and increase in soil minerals. Impacts to trees were assessed by collecting data on number of trees scarred or felled, tree damage, number of tree with exposed roots, level of root exposure, and number of fire scars. General campsite information was also collected, such as campsite development rating, cleanliness rating, number of social trails, and trail ratings.
  • Priority Categories: Pack stock impacts on campsites
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2005-0002

45. Wilderness and roadless areas in Montana, Idaho and California, 1970-1971 – Use patterns and visitor characteristics, attitudes, and preferences in nine wilderness and roadless areas

  • Abstract: Presents a summary and analysis of data from a survey of visitors to eight wildernesses and related areas in the Montana and idaho Rockies and to one wilderness in the California Sierra nevadas. Basic data on use patterns, including types of groups, activities, travel behavior, visitor characteristivs, motives for visits, satisfation with conditions experienced, and preferences for management actions are described and compared among areas, between day users and campers, horsemen and hikers, and summer and fall visitors. management implications are discussed.
  • Priority Categories: types of use, visitor preferences, characteristics and attitudes
  • Not yet available online

46. Bob Marshall, Bridger, and High Uintas Wildernesses and Boundary Waters Canoe Area, 1969 – Visitor perceptions of wilderness recreation carrying capacity

  • Abstract: Nearly 500 visitors to four wildernesses were surveyed including the Bob Marshall Wilderness in Montana, Bridger Wilderness in Wyoming, the High Uintas Wilderness in Utah, and the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) in Minnesota. Data includes a completed questionnaire designed to obtain data on four parameters of use that could potentially affect capacity standards: (1) Level of use encountered; (2) type of use encountered; (3) location of encounters; and (4) effects of depreciative behavior (littering).
  • Priority Categories: Visitor attitudes toward use
  • Not yet available online

47. National Survey on Recreation and the Environment

  • Abstract:  In 1960, the federal government initiate a National Recreation Survey (NRS) to assess outdoor recreation participation in the United States. The NRS included a series of six surveys between 1960 and 1983 (1960, 1965, 1970, 1972, 1977, and 1982-1983). Starting in 1994, the NRS was renamed the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment (NSRE). This new name was introduced to reflect the growing interest and emphasis of the U.S. population about their natural environment. Accordingly, the NSRE was expanded to include questions concerning peoples’ wildlife and wilderness uses, environmental values, and attitudes regarding recreation policy issues. This archive is the most comprehensive collection of data related to the NSRE. This archive includes NSRE data collected between 1994 and 2009. There are a number of data files, each of which corresponds with a particular survey instrument. In total, this data archive includes more than 100,000 survey responses, which were collected during multiple similar data collection efforts. These data were collected as a general population, random-digit-dialed household telephone survey designed to measure participation in outdoor recreation activities and people’s environmental behaviors and attitudes.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation, public access
  • Not yet available online

48. Data from commercial and private boat user 1995 survey on the Salmon River in the Frank Church – River of No Return Wilderness

  • Abstract: These data represent a study of the dominant user groups on the Main and Middle Forks of the Salmon River in Idaho. Though these groups are using similar equipment and traveling on the same river at the same time, they differ in most aspects of their expectations for the trip, problems they encounter, and what they think managers should do to protect the resource. These data were collected in 1995, during the primary use season, using a survey. The survey consisted of questions answered at the launch point, and additionally they were asked to answer questions on their first, third, and last night on the river, as well as the take out point. The sampling process resulted in 238 commercial clients and 301 private party members.
  • Priority categories: Recreation and Relationships
  • Not yet available online
49.Study of unique tributary users in the Frank Church – River of No Return Wilderness: data from 1996 survey
  • Abstract: These data were collected from users of five steep-creek tributaries in the Frank Church – River of No Return Wilderness. The data are from a mailback survey of users, asking questions such as past experience levels, personal level of skill, significance of social and resource indicators, support for proposed management actions, and perception of trip quality. These data were collected in 1996, during the primary use season, and the sampling process resulted in 216 surveys sent and 174 people responded (81% return rate).
  • Priority categories: Recreation and Relationships
  • Not yet available online

50. Fire atlas for the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem (Glacier National Park, Great Bear Wilderness, Bob Marshall Wilderness, and Scapegoat Wilderness)

  • Abstract: This fire atlas includes all 1972-2012 wildland fires at least 20 hectares (ha) or 50 acres in size that occurred within or intersected the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem in Montana, which is comprised of Glacier National Park, Great Bear Wilderness, Bob Marshall Wilderness, and Scapegoat Wilderness. There are two main components of this fire atlas; the first being a fire history shapefile depicting fire perimeters, and the second being raster files representing satellite-inferred burn severity for these fires. For fires that occurred from 1972 to 1983, burn severity is measured as dNDVI (delta normalized difference vegetation index), which is calculated using Landsat multi-spectral scanner (MSS) data. For fires that occurred between 1984 and 2012, burn severity is measured as dNBR (delta normalized burn ratio), RBR (relativized burn ratio), and dNDVI (delta normalized difference vegetation index), which are calculated using Landsat TM (thematic mapper), ETM+ (enhanced thematic mapper plus), and OLI (operational land imager) data.
  • Priority Categories: Wildfire
  • Found at:  https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2015-0022/

51.  Fire atlas for the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness

  • Abstract:  This fire atlas includes all 1972-2012 wildland fires at least 20 hectares (ha) or 50 acres in size that occurred within or intersected the Frank Church - River of No Return Wilderness in Idaho. There are two main components of this fire atlas; the first being a fire history shapefile depicting fire perimeters, and the second being raster files representing satellite-inferred burn severity for these fires. For fires that occurred from 1972 to 1983, burn severity is measured as dNDVI (delta normalized difference vegetation index), which is calculated using Landsat multi-spectral scanner (MSS) data. For fires that occurred between 1984 and 2012, burn severity is measured as dNBR (delta normalized burn ratio), RBR (relativized burn ratio), and dNDVI (delta normalized difference vegetation index), which are calculated using Landsat TM (thematic mapper), ETM+ (enhanced thematic mapper plus), and OLI (operational land imager) data.
  • Priority Categories: Wildfire
  • Found at: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2015-0021/

52. Fire atlas for the Gila and Aldo Leopold Wilderness areas

  • Abstract: This fire atlas includes all 1972-2012 wildland fires at least 20 hectares (ha) or 50 acres in size that occurred within or intersected the Gila and Aldo Leopold Wilderness areas in New Mexico. There are two main components of this fire atlas; the first being a fire history shapefile depicting fire perimeters, and the second being raster files representing satellite-inferred burn severity for these fires. For fires that occurred from 1972 to 1983, burn severity is measured as dNDVI (delta normalized difference vegetation index), which is calculated using Landsat multi-spectral scanner (MSS) data. For fires that occurred between 1984 and 2012, burn severity is measured as dNBR (delta normalized burn ratio), RBR (relativized burn ratio), and dNDVI (delta normalized difference vegetation index), which are calculated using Landsat TM (thematic mapper), ETM+ (enhanced thematic mapper plus), and OLI (operational land imager) data.
  • Priority Categories: Wildfire
  • Found at: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2015-0023/

53: Fire atlas for the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness

  • Abstract: This fire atlas includes all 1972-2012 wildland fires at least 20 hectares (ha) or 50 acres in size that occurred within or intersected the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness (Montana and Idaho). There are two main components of this fire atlas; the first being a fire history shapefile depicting fire perimeters, and the second being raster files representing satellite-inferred burn severity for these fires. For fires that occurred from 1972 to 1983, burn severity is measured as dNDVI (delta normalized difference vegetation index), which is calculated using Landsat multi-spectral scanner (MSS) data. For fires that occurred between 1984 and 2012, burn severity is measured as dNBR (delta normalized burn ratio), RBR (relativized burn ratio), and dNDVI (delta normalized difference vegetation index), which are calculated using Landsat TM (thematic mapper), ETM+ (enhanced thematic mapper plus), and OLI (operational land imager) data.
  • Priority Categories: Wildfire
  • Found at: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2015-0024/

54: Chlorophyll-a data from Big Creek Tributaries (1990-2014)

  • Abstract: Data presented here are from a long-term project that has been monitoring aerial chlorophyll–a biomass and ash-free dry mass values in 7 streams within the Big Creek watershed. All sites are located near the Taylor Wilderness Research Station in the Frank Church Wilderness Area, Idaho. Sites were sampled during the summer (July) from 1990 to the present. In a given year, five replicate samples were collected in each stream via rock scrubbings, and analyzed for chlorophyll-a concentration and biomass. The study streams are Rush Creek, Pioneer Creek, Cave Creek, Cliff Creek, Goat Creek, Cougar Creek, and Big Creek mainstem. Streams vary in size and fire history. No samples were collected in 1992. Big Creek mainstem was added to the dataset in 2007.
  • Priority Categories:  Wilderness and larger social-ecological systems
  • Found at: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2016-0026/

55: Invertebrate abundance and biomass data from Big Creek tributaries (1988-2012)

  • Abstract: Data presented here are from a long-term project that has been monitoring benthic invertebrate abundance and biomass in 7 streams within the Big Creek watershed. The study streams are Rush Creek, Pioneer Creek, Cave Creek, Cliff Creek, Goat Creek, Cougar Creek, and Big Creek mainstem (Big Creek Above Rush). All sites are located near the Taylor Wilderness Research Station in the Frank Church Wilderness Area, Idaho. Sites were sampled during the summer (July) from 1988 to 2012. In a given year, typically five (occasionally more) replicate samples were collected in each stream via Surber net and analyzed for benthic invertebrate abundance and biomass.
  • Priority Categories:  Wilderness and larger social-ecological systems
  • Found at: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2016-0027/

56: Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve: 2002-2003 wilderness visitor experience data in the Alaska regional context

  • Abstract:  This data publication contains transcripts of interviews with visitors to the Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve (WRST), in Alaska, in 2002 (Phase I) and 2003 (Phase II). Interviews in the first phase included questions relating to visitor expectations and experiences, with specific attention paid to inter-visitor conflict (both before and during the fall hunting season). Phase II interviews were focused more on recreational use. Each interview was tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The qualitative interviews were conducted with groups (sometimes there was only a single person in a ‘group’, while other times there were multiple people). Also included are data from each interview that describe group size, residency, purpose of visit, and other basic visitor descriptive information.
  • Priority Categories:  Recreation, Relationships
  • Found at: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2018-0022

57: Social conditions and visitor flow data for the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness

  • Abstract:  Social conditions and visitor flows on the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) on the Superior National Forest in northeastern Minnesota were monitored during the seasons of greatest visitor use (May-September) in 2010 and 2011. In 2010, four spatially defined areas within BWCAW were observed by technicians and both the number of encounters and typical visitor behavior were approximated. During the day travel encounters on the water were observed, and in the early mornings and evenings both campsite encounters and occupancy conditions were recorded. The qualities of other relevant variables were also measured such as weather and aircraft over-flights. In 2011 all trip leaders of permitted overnight boating trips into the BWCAW were contacted and invited to complete an online or hard copy survey reporting their trip itinerary such as lakes visited, length of stay, and party size as well as other variables related to their wilderness trip such as number and type of watercraft used.
  • Priority Categories:  Recreation, Relationships
  • Found at: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2018-0022