Archived Data

The Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute has been engaged for nearly 45 years in Wilderness science. This history of research has resulted in countless publications, papers and conferences. However, Wilderness research itself produces another vital resource: data. In order to ensure the accessibility and longevity of scientific data, the Leopold Institute has worked to archive within a digital database. Raw data sets, survey instruments, coding manuals, and study plans now reside physically and electronically within the Leopold Institute. The more accessible raw data are, the more added value can be realized by current and future analysis possibilities. The value of research data only grows over time, as access to raw data and metadata is vital for understanding the changing dynamic of wilderness, and how it is impacted by the environment and people.

For research conducted or funded by the Leopold Institute, national standards are used developed by the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC). The Leopold Institute uses the software Metavist (https://metavist2.codeplex.com/ ) a program that assists in the creation of metadata. The result is data about data. Metadata are used to answer such questions as what data were collected, how they were collected, why they were collected, how reliable they are, and what issues should be accounted for when working with them. These are the highest quality standards to create long term accessible and understandable data.

1. Rattlesnake 1989 - Social condition, conflict, and preference data for users in the Rattlesnake National Recreation area from 1989

  • Abstract: This data product contains visitor preference for naturalness and social conditions for their visitor experience in the Rattlesnake National Recreation Area (RNRA) and Wilderness in Montana. Random onsite interviews were conducted to gather basic on-site information regarding length of visit, travel destinations, and group characteristics. If willing to participate, interviewees were sent mailback questionnaires which contained more details on classification of visitors by activities participated in, preference for conditions, factors influencing the quality of their experience, and overall feelings of the RNRA. A set of supplemental questions were then sent to all participants who returned the mailback questionnaire, because it was discovered that user conflict between mountain bike riders and hikers was present. The supplemental questions aimed to understand the underlying reasons for that conflict.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and relationships.
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2015-0002

2. SEKI 1990 - John Muir Wilderness and Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Parks Wilderness: 1990 visitor survey data

  • Abstract: A long-term problem that confronted wilderness managers in the early 1990s, and continues today, is the displeasure hikers express about meeting recreational livestock (primarily horses and mules) and seeing impacts of stock use. This data set contains the responses from a visitor survey of 891 participants who spent time in Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Parks Wilderness or John Muir Wilderness during 1990. Participants were a mix of hikers and stock users, and much of the information gathered was in regard to hiker/stock user interaction and preference.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2014-0021
3. Rattlesnake 1994 - Social conditions, conflict, and preference data for users in the Rattlesnake National Recreation Area in 1994
  • Abstract: The data available here highlight visitor preferences for naturalness and social conditions for their visitor experience in the Rattlesnake National Recreation Area (RNRA) and Wilderness in Montana. Mountain bikers and hikers in the RNRA were surveyed in 1994 to measure conflict between various user groups visiting the RNRA. Random onsite interviews were conducted to gather basic on-site information regarding length of visit, travel destinations, and group characteristics. If willing to participate, interviewees were sent mailback questionnaires which contained more details on classification of visitors by activities participated in, preference for conditions, encounters with others, factors influencing the quality of their experience, and overall feelings of the RNRA. This study is, in part, a replication of a similar study done in the same area in 1989.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships.
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2015-0003

4. SEKI 2011 Visitor Study - Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SEKI) Wilderness: 2011 visitor survey data

  • Abstract: This data product contains data from a 2011 quantitative study on Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, in California, on wilderness user perceptions of existing wilderness quality and existing management practices and facilities. Data include individual visitor and group demographics, frequency of visits, trip characteristics, such as activities, use of technology, length of trip, size of group, type of fuel used, and method of deterring negative bear-human interaction.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships.
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2014-0024

5. SEKI 2011 Oral History Study - Oral history data for changes in wilderness condition, use, and management in the Sequoia Kings Canyon National Parks collected in 2011

  • Abstract: This data describes the condition, use, and management of the two wilderness areas within Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SEKI). The project examined local/experiential knowledge collected through oral history interviews to track how the character and quality of the Parks’ wilderness, as well as visitors’ uses and experiences have changed over time.
  • Priority Categories: Relationships
  • Not yet available online

6. Yakutat 2004 - Yakutat Resident Survey on the Situk River, 2004-2006

  • Abstract: The five primary government agencies involved in the collaborative planning process include: The US Forest Service, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, the City and Borough of Yakutat, and the Yakutat Tlingit Tribe. This study examines relationships to place between residents of Yakutat, Alaska and the Situk River. It documents an assessment of local perspectives on use, conflict, and management issues on the river. Eight semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with targeted community members and analyzed to gain understanding of local perspectives. Quantitative surveys then followed, in order to develop statistical models useful for generalizability and prediction. Overall, a large minority (42%) of Yakutat residents felt that their relationships with the Situk River had been compromised. While they would prefer less use, most respondents were not supportive of imposing restrictions to lower the current level. As these perceptions and opinions vary widely across segments, it is useful to interpret them from a relationship-to-place perspective.
  • Priority Categories: Relationships
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2015-0004

7. Bob Marshall Wilderness Complex 1982 - Visitor characteristics, attitudes, and use patterns data for the Bob Marshall Wilderness Complex from 1982

  • Abstract: The dataset presented here highlights visitor characteristics (e.g. residence, age, education, types of groups, club memberships), attitudes (e.g. satisfaction with wilderness experience), and use patterns (e.g. method of travel, length of stay, activities engaged in during trip) for wilderness visitors to the Bob Marshall Wilderness Complex (BMWC) during 1982.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships
  • Found at: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rds/archive/Product/RDS-2017-0015/

8. Three Southern Wilderness Areas 1989-1990 - Social conditions and preference data for visitors to three wilderness areas in the southern United States from 1989-1990.

  • Abstract: The datasets presented here document preferences for naturalness and social conditions for visitor experiences in the Cohutta Wilderness (Georgia), Caney Creek Wilderness (Arkansas), and Upland Island Wilderness (Texas). Additionally, characteristics of users and their relationship to the resource are documented.
  • Priority Categories: Relationships
  • Not yet available online

9. Desolation Visitor Study 1990 - Visitor trends, and preferences for wilderness conditions and experience data for Desolation Wilderness from 1990

  • Abstract: The study and datasets presented here allow for comparison between responses from visitors in 1990-1991 to visitors in 1972. Surveying for visitor preferences and use of the Desolation Wilderness gives researchers and managers the ability to ascertain changes in wilderness conditions, and better understand trends in visitor expectation and experience.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships
  • Not yet available online

10. Shining Rock 1990 - Data for trends in recreation use and users in Shining Rock Wilderness in 1990

  • Abstract: The dataset presented here highlight important characteristics of wilderness visitor use, including socio-demographic descriptions, visit characteristics, visitor perceptions of resource and use conditions, and evaluation of these conditions, and visitor preferences for conditions and management.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships
  • Not yet available online

11. Charles Deam Wilderness 1991 - Use characteristics, visitor preferences, and conflict data for horse users and hikers in the Charles C. Deam Wilderness Area from 1991

  • Abstract: The data provided here come from a coordinated research effort to better understand the visitor conflict associated with wilderness areas where horse and hiker use occurs. This conflict has occurred for many years in some places and is a rather new, but anticipated to grow, problem in other parts of the country. As long as horse use and hiker use occurs on the same resource base there is apparently the potential for negative interaction between the groups. The need is to assess the extent of this conflict and for some input to management. This data includes user characteristics and preferences for the wilderness experience in the Charles Deam Wilderness Area in Indiana.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships.
  • Not yet available online

12. Eagle Cap Wilderness 1993 - Human values and codes of behavior data for Oregon's Eagle Cap Wilderness visitors from 1993

  • Abstract: This data product contains data from a study of visitors to Oregon's Eagle Cap Wilderness in 1993. Between June and November, visitors were asked to participate in a survey asking questions about their trip and views of the wilderness. Specifically they were asked questions about the number of people and groups seen during their trip, general feelings toward solitude and the wilderness, the level of solitude and wilderness solitude experienced on their trip, things that influenced the solitude on their trip, general feelings toward the management of the wilderness, and how much (if at all) evidence of human use of the wilderness detracted from their enjoyment of the trip.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships.
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2015-0014

13. Desolation Fee Study 1998 - Desolation Wilderness data 1998: Visitor Response to Fees, Fee Demonstration Project

  • Abstract: This study plan presents an example of research and management teams working together to define researchable questions, specifically the generation of knowledge regarding fees, response to fees, and trip satisfaction. Visitor feedback was gathered, outlining major concerns, and suggesting broad support for use of fees to reduce impacts, restore sites, and reduce litter. An understanding of how fees affect the relationship between visitors and Desolation Wilderness is suggested, as well as potential future research. Overall, this data provides support for collaborative research in local and national wilderness areas.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships
  • Not yet available online

14. Frank Church Wilderness Jet Boat Study 1999 - Understanding Motorboat (including Jet Boat) Uses and Users on the Main Salmon River, Qualitative and Quantitative Data for the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness from 1999

  • Abstract: The 1999 study in the Frank Church Wilderness researched in two phases visitor use regarding motorboats and jet boats on the Salmon River. Data was gathered in coordination with the Western Whitewater Association and Northwest River Runners, and in general identifies key factors and attitudes held by users. This study contributes to a framework for studying similar pre-established issues in wilderness and along wild rivers.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships
  • Not yet available online

15. Gates of the Arctic 2001-2003 - A 2001-2003 Study Providing Data for Scientific Input to Indicators and Standards: A Focus on Wilderness Experience Stewardship at Gates of the Arctic National Park & Preserve, Using Qualitative and Quantitative Project Phases
Abstract: Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve (GAAR) is a remote area in the Brooks Range of northern Alaska. GAAR contains more than 7 million acres of federally designated wilderness, but hosts only about 600 recreation visitors per year. A two-year, two-phase project was implemented at GAAR to provide scientific input to visitor management and backcountry planning. In phase I (2001) qualitative methods (in-depth interviews) were used to develop an understanding of the nature of visitor experiences and to identify significant influences on those experiences. Results identified five broad experience dimensions and several potential factors of influence upon those experiences. In phase II of the research project (2002), a quantitative survey of 201 recreation visitors to GAAR was conducted to investigate and validate the distribution of phase I results. Common factor analysis was used to quantify unique experience dimensions (factors) at GAAR, as well as factors of influence upon visitor experiences. Results identified five experience dimensions and five factors of influence (encounters, management, wildlife, air flight, human behavior). Regression analysis was used to relate the five factors of influence to the five experience dimensions. Trust in the National Park Service was also assessed as a predictor of GAAR experience dimensions.
Priority Categories: Relationships
Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2015-0038

16. Bitterroot National Forest Trust Study 2004 - Exploring the public’s trust in natural resource management, and trust in wildland fire and fuel management decisions: data gathered in a 2004 study in the Bitterroot Valley, Montana

  • Abstract: Recent research has called for a more comprehensive approach to natural resource management that balances social, ecological, and economic obligations. Within this framework, the present study examines the public’s trust as a measure of managerial success, and attempts to identify and measure the components that most influence it. A review of trust literature yielded 14 attributes that were hypothesized to contribute to trust, in three dimensions. Based on this review, a telephone survey was developed and administered to a sample of Montana residents living adjacent to the Bitterroot National Forest (N=1152). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypothesized relationship among trust contributors. All 14 attributes were found to be influential contributors to trust. Results suggest that if managers are to maintain or increase levels of public trust, they need to consider trust’s attributes as they make social, ecological, and economic resource decisions.
  • Priority Categories: Wildland Fire and Relationships
  • Not yet available online

17. Kobuk River 2002 - Management input data for sport hunters on the Kobuk River, Gates of the Arctic, from 2002

  • Abstract: The Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute (ALWRI), an inter-agency (USDI and USDA) research unit of the Rocky Mountain Research Station, conducted this study. The primary client was the National Park Service (NPS), Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve. Individuals from both NPS and ALWRI contributed to the creation, design and implementation of this study. Between August and September 2001, sport hunters were asked to respond to a mail-back questionnaire about hunting on the Kobuk River in the Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve in Alaska. A high response rate developed knowledge of hunter experience, and contributes to understanding of resource use in the park. The results from this study allow for enhanced management and management planning.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships.
  • Not yet available online

18. Bob Marshall Wilderness Complex Fire Study 2004 - Preferences, Uses, User Characteristics and Attitudes towards Fire Management data for visitors to the Bob Marshall Wilderness Complex in 2004

  • Abstract: Research at the Bob Marshall Wilderness Complex (BMWC) in Montana explored differences in recreation visitors’ attitudes towards the use of management-ignited prescribed fires in the wilderness. A mail-back survey of visitors (n = 291) during the 2004 use season revealed that over half of visitors would accept prescribed fires in wilderness. This support did not vary by ignition purpose: (a) to restore the natural role of fire or (b) to reduce hazardous fuels and potential for fire escaping to non-wilderness lands. Local visitors, however, were significantly more accepting of prescribed fires than non-local visitors across both ignition purposes. A smaller proportion of visitors than was expected considered the presence of natural fire undesirable, also.
  • Priority Categories: Wildand Fire, Recreation, and Relationships.
  • Included within: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2015-0022

19. Oregon Wildernesses 1991 - Three Sisters, Mt. Jefferson, and Mt. Washington: Survey Data from Oregon Wilderness Visitors in 1991

  • Abstract: Beginning in the summer of 1991, all visitors to Three Sisters, Mt. Washington, and Mt. Jefferson wildernesses in Oregon were required to obtain permits to enter. The number of permits was not limited, but the objective of this study was to evaluate possible consequences of a use limit program. Permit receipts were sampled and mail back surveys sent to visitors. Interest was primarily in documenting visitor responses, and experiences from their trips. The data information is meant to be pooled with surveys of visitors in other wilderness areas, to provide a broader perspective on visitor characteristics and preferences for the managers of these areas. This project is part of the Intermountain Station’s continued effort to develop knowledge about visitors, and to help in the evaluation of future management action at Three Sisters, Mt. Jefferson, and Mt. Washington.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships.
  • Not yet available online

20. Situk River 2003 – Situk River Recreation Study from 2003

  • Abstract: To address Partners (see: 2002Situk_partners) action plan priority for research on recreation use of the Situk River, a study was undertaken in 2003. It aimed to describe non-local recreation use, recreation visitor attitudes, and perceptions of the Situk during three fishing seasons between April and September. The study was conducted by the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute (ALWRI), an inter-agency unit (Departments of Agriculture and Interior) administered by the Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station. The research team for the project included Alan Watson, ALWRI Social Scientist and Situk River project PI; Doug Whittaker, Three Rivers Research private consultant with previous Alaska river consulting experience; and Neal Christensen, ALWRI Social Science Analyst, and Situk River project manager.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships
  • Not yet available online

21. Llama study 1993 - 1993 Data for Measuring Manager's Perceptions of Llama Use in Wild Areas

  • Abstract: The Wilderness Act (PL 88-577) directs federal agencies responsible for wilderness to preserve natural conditions. Problem 1 is: "information is needed about the factors that influence the quality of both the wilderness resource and recreational experiences and how these qualities are changing over time." This study deals specifically with measuring the social impacts associated with the use of recreational packstock and potential means of minimizing problems, and researches the perception of wilderness managers on llama use within wilderness areas. It is also concerned with evaluating the nature and source of conflict between different wilderness user groups in order to suggest methods of managing that conflict.
  • Priority Categories: Relationships
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2016-0019

22. Okefenokee Wilderness 2001 - 2001 Data from a Study of Okefenoke Wilderness Visitors’ Characteristics, Perceptions, and Management Preferences

  • Abstract: The Okefenokee Wilderness has several characteristics that make it an ideal laboratory to study the interactions between recreationists, and the natural environment. Wilderness managers at Okefenokee have adopted regulations that lead overnight visitors to expect and receive high-quality experiences of solitude. Negatives of this approach are that freedom of movement and exploration of the wilderness are highly restricted; many of those seeking overnight permits are denied them, and interaction with unrestricted day users is generally negative. Managers wanted to assess visitor opinions about management and use of the Okefenokee, and gain information on the characteristics and experiences of visitors. This study is composed of research aimed to answer those managerial questions.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and relationships.
  • Not yet available online

23. Boundary Waters Canoe Area and Wilderness 2006 - Data from a 2007 Study of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness: Changes in Use, Users, and Management

  • Abstract: In 2007, a team consisting of Superior National Forest managers, Forest Service scientists, and academic partners realized the need and the opportunity to update information on trends in the BWCAW. Researchers were concerned with changes in use and users, and their perceptions of wilderness conditions- as well as exploring many of the new challenges facing managers. Examining trends in wilderness areas can help determine the future direction and implications of management policies and actions. This trend study in the BWCAW shows how use and user characteristics have changed over the last 40 years.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and relationships
  • Not yet available online

24. Boundary Waters Canoe Area and Wilderness 1991 - Data from a 1991 Visitor Survey to Determine Trends in Wilderness Visits, Visitors, and Visitor Preferences in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness

  • Abstract: The Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) receives the most use of any wilderness in the country, and has been the location of several studies. The 1991 study aimed to obtain overnight visitor perceptions of wilderness conditions. This was to determine changes in perception and trends of use, as well as to examine social and resource conditions. Overnight recreation visitors were surveyed. Results suggested that 1) reducing recreation-use limits will benefit overnight visitors, who reported difficulty finding unoccupied campsites; 2) solitude opportunities can be meaningfully described by comparing visitor encounter rates with visitor tolerance levels; and 3) the least number of daily encounters, rather than the average number, is the more useful evaluation criteria in determining if solitude opportunities exist. Examining these trends in wilderness areas can help determine the future direction and implications of management policies and actions.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and relationships.
  • Not yet available online

25. Oregon Marketing Study 1999 - Public Purpose Recreation Marketing: Public and Public Lands Relationships in a 1999 Study of Oregon and Washington

  • Abstract: This project focused on developing a feasible and appropriate framework for the application of marketing principles and approaches to public recreation management. In doing so, it hoped to demonstrate a logical and valid procedure that can be adopted and applied in future situations. In late 1999, telephone interviews were conducted with residents of the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, using trust, commitment, social responsibility and support to develop the market segments. The collection and analysis of marketing data can have a profound influence on planning and management decisions and this study illustrates an approach that reflects both public policy mandates and methodological integrity.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships
  • Not yet available online

26. Alpine Lakes 1990 – Encounter and monitoring data from Alpine Lakes Wilderness in 1990

  • Abstract: Historically, researchers (and subsequently managers) have considered intergroup encounters as a primary indicator of solitude in wilderness. Because of that, intergroup encounters has been included in many Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) plans as an indicator (or indicators, typically including a measure of encounters while traveling and encounters while camping). Quite often wilderness planners adopt these encounter indicators with the confidence they are relevant to solitude and the perception that they will be simple to monitor. When technicians are charged with monitoring these indicators, however, there is often some disappointment. Sometimes the technician will point out that the indicator is not defined precisely enough to assure precise monitoring, or the technician finds it impractical to provide enough data to determine whether standards are met or not (particularly in cases where a probability of exceeding some encounter level is part of the standard; eg., 80% probability of seeing less than 10 groups per day). Once current source of concern is the number of LAC planners that have decided not to include an indicator of the solitude factor due to these monitoring problems. The other source of concern is the number of plans which retain encounter indicators, but when asked about monitoring methods, managers often admit that they are not monitoring in a way that will determine whether standards are met, therefore, standards are meaningless.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships.
  • Not yet available online

27. Togiak 2001- Understanding Land Use Conflicts in Togiak National Wildlife Refuge in 2001, Qualitative and Quantitative Data

  • Abstract: Much of the prior research concerning subsistence uses has focused on allocation of resources, rather than understanding conflict. While scarcity of resources is a factor in many conflicts, there are also social and cultural issues that are often unaddressed. This research focused on conflicts from the perspective of human interactions, not from the perspective of law enforcement or allocation of land and resources. Case study research was conducted concerning land use conflicts in wilderness, particularly conflicts between subsistence uses and recreation uses in Alaska’s Togiak National Wildlife Refuge. A parallel project was conducted in Finland; the final product is to be a cross-case comparison
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships
  • Not yet available online

28. Nunavut 2002-2004 - 2002-2004 Visitor Experience Study in the National Parks of Canada, Auyuittuq and Quttinirpaaq, in the eastern Arctic Nunavut region

  • Abstract: A joint, three-phase research project was launched in 2002 in an effort to better understand the characteristics of and influences on visitors’ experiences in Auyuittuq and Quttinirpaaq Ntional Parks of Nunavut, Canada. This study was conducted to provide information to Parks Canada’s Nunavut Field Unit, which identified a need to develop a more complete understanding of the experiences of recreation visitors, in an effort to protect various values and monitor influences. The project is one in a series of recent studies in arctic settings to understand the various orientations of different groups of people (e.g. native, tourist, distant populations, development interests, etc.) toward the natural landscapes, protected area management and collaborative planning. This research builds on these previous studies and is conducted collaboratively by Parks Canada, the University of Montana, and the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation and Relationships
  • Not yet available online

29. Shoshone National Forest Q-study 2012 - Data collected in 2012 for identifying preferences for water-based ecosystem services derived from the Shoshone National Forest

  • Abstract: The dataset presented here highlights the preferences of 96 stakeholders from Wyoming and Montana for 34 water-based ecosystem services. The ecosystem services were identified through literature review, focus groups, and pilot tests, and the list of services was considered to be a representation of the full range of water-based ecosystem services derived from the Shoshone National Forest in northwest Wyoming. In addition, there is demographic data from each stakeholder, as well as perceptions about the potential impact of various drivers on the flow of their most important ecosystem services.
  • Priority Categories: Relationships
  • Not yet available online

30. Frank Church Wilderness of No Return Q-study 2012 – Data collected in 2012 for identifying preferences for wilderness-based ecosystem services derived from the Frank Church River of No Return Wilderness.

  • Abstract: The dataset presented here highlights the preferences of stakeholders from communities surrounding the Frank Church Wilderness for a broad range of wilderness-based ecosystem services. The ecosystem services were identified through literature review, focus groups, and pilot tests, and the list of services was considered to be a representation of the full range of wilderness ecosystem services derived from the Frank Church Wilderness. In addition, there is demographic data from each stakeholder, as well as perceptions about the potential impact of various drivers on the flow of their most important ecosystem services.
  • Priority Categories: Relationships
  • Not yet available online

31. Wrangell-St. Elias 2002-2003 - 2002-2003 Data on Wilderness Visitor Experiences at Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve in the Alaska Regional Context

  • Abstract: Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve (WRST) is directed by the mission “to preserve and protect the ecological integrity and heritage resources of a vast ecosystem in south-central Alaska, while providing for public use in a wilderness setting” (NPS, 2000). The fulfillment of this mission rests on appropriate park management and planning. Phase I and II of this study were developed to assist in the drafting of a new Backcountry Management Plan for the park. The basic objectives were to better understand visitor expectations and experiences, with specific attention paid to inter-visitor conflict (during and preceding the fall hunting season). The research proceeded along qualitative-interpretative lines, and consisted of a series of interviews conducted with visitors as they entered and exited WRST. Each interview was tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim, so that the resulting texts were the primary data from the study. The study was initially proposed by Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, and then jointly developed and funded by the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute.
  • Priority Categories: Relationships
  • Not yet available online

32. Wilderness Management Survey 2014 - 2014 Data from the Wilderness Management Survey

  • Abstract: Stewards and managers of wilderness areas within the National Wilderness Preservation System (NWPS) were selected for surveying in 2014 in order to provide input for the development of the 2014 Inter-agency Strategic Plan for the NWPS. Research focused on major challenges in stewardship and planning, and where managers saw rising needs for specific training or research. Additionally, managers provided optional, follow-up data regarding the previous NWPS Strategic Plan, from 1995, and the degree to which its goals and values were enacted.
  • Priority Categories: Delivery and application
  • Not yet available online

33. National River Recreation Study, 1977-1984 - nationwide survey of river recreation.

  • Abstract: This data product contains data collected as part of the National River Recreation Study (NRRS), which was a program of long-term research on river recreationists nationwide. The North Central Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, St. Paul, Minnesota (NCFES) conducted the overall study between 1977 and 1984. Both onsite interviews and mail back surveys were used to collect data, which included recreationist responses from over 69 surveys that took place in 23 states across the United States on 57 different river segments. Participants were asked questions about river usage (how often visited, type of watercraft used, etc.), opinions of location (erosion of stream banks, litter on banks, too many homes along river, etc.), changes people might like to see (more parking at access points, post signs warning of hazard, etc.), why they visit the location, and potential damage found or conflicts with other visitors.
  • Priority Categories: Recreation, descriptive
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2014-0007

34. San Rafael Wilderness 1999 – Campsite condition data

  • Abstract: Campsites within the central portion of the San Rafael Wilderness of California were assessed over a 9 day period in April 1999. All but one of 22 semi-developed camping areas were visited. These camping areas consist of one or several long-established campsites, with stoves, and are located on maps of the area. In addition, informal user-created campsites were located and assessed in other places that appeared amenable to camping. A total of 91 campsites were located and briefly assessed, 30 of which were within the 21 camping areas that were visited. The other 61 sites were informal campsites. This probably represents at least 75% of all campsites in the San Rafael Wilderness. This data product contains data for the 50 campsites that showed permanent damage, such as vegetation loss. These sites underwent a rapid assessment which included the following basic campsite measurements: condition class, vegetation type, soils, dominant species, landform, distance to trail, distance to water, number of fire rings, tree damage, number of fire scars, number of nearby trails, and other standard campsite data. Within 19 of the 21 semi-developed camping areas that were visited, a single campsite was chosen for a detailed assessment which included collecting the following data: tree scars, exposed roots, vegetation and soil coverage, and soil penetration. Similar data were collected for comparable control sites.
  • Priority Categories: campsite condition assessment
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2014-0006

35. Salmon River in the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness, 1995-1996; 2001-2004; 2008-2009 – Campsite condition data

  • Abstract: This data product includes conditions of campsites used by boaters along the Middle Fork and Main Salmon Rivers in the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness, Idaho. Campsite conditions were first monitored between 1995 and 1996, and again from 2001 to 2004, and then 2008 to 2009. Overall, 13 campsites and 4 control sites were assessed on the Main Salmon River, and 11 campsites and 6 controls sites were assessed on the Middle Fork Salmon River. Data include basic campsite measurements such as condition class, vegetation type of the camp area and satellite area, number of trees and level of tree damage, number of fire rings, information on the number and condition of nearby trails, and other standard campsite data.
  • Priority Categories: campsite condition assessment.
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2014-0004

36. Superstition Wilderness, 2005-2007 – Campsite condition data

  • Abstract: Between November 2005 and March 2007, a Rapid Site Inventory (RSI) was performed on 459 campsites in the Superstition Wilderness Area of the Tonto National Forest in Arizona. This assessment of 90-95% of the campsites in this wilderness was a quick site inventory including primarily presence/absence response variables. Data include standard campsite characteristics such as location, size, dominant vegetation, ground cover, presence of water, visibility of management actions, and proximity to other features (springs, trails, etc.). Other measurements include presence of litter and waste, quantity and size of human disturbance to soils/rocks/vegetation, campfire size and quantity, dead and down fuel size and quantity, damage to shrubs, vandalism, livestock impacts, equestrian impacts, presence of artifacts or rock art, and other recreational impact data.
  • In addition to the RSI, an extreme RSI was also completed on each site, which included a rating for groundcover disturbance, tree damage, and size of disturbed area. This was done to be consistent with the USDA Forest Service's Minimum Protocol for campsite monitoring.
  • Priority Categories: Rapid Site Inventory (RSI) and monitoring.
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2014-0005

37. Four South-Central wildernesses in Arkansas, Illinois and Missouri, 1993-1994; 2007 – Campsite condition data

  • Abstract: This data product contains conditions of 91 campsites spread over four wilderness areas in the South-Central United States. Recreation impact was studied in Caney Creek, Upper Buffalo, Hercules Glades, and Garden of the Gods Wildernesses. Campsites were measured in 1993-1994, and Caney Creek campsites were measured again in 2007. Data include basic campsite measurements such as condition class, vegetation type, soils, dominant species, landform, distance to trail, distance to water, number of fire rings, tree damage, and other standard campsite data. A subsample (21 sites) of the non-trace campsites were assessed in more detail and data such as campsite area, ground vegetation (stone, forbs, grass, shrub, moss/lichen, etc.) and seedling counts were measured and similar data collected for a comparable control site. Additional measurements for these non-trace sites included tree counts by species and size as well as type of tree damage.
  • Priority Categories: campsite condition assessment and recreation impacts
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2013-0014

38. Grand Canyon National Park, 1984, 1989, 1990 and 2005 – backcountry campsite assessments

  • Abstract: This data product contains conditions of a sample of backcountry campsites in Grand Canyon National Park, which have been assessed three times so far, in 1984, 1989/1990 and 2005. The sample consists of 24 campsites that vary in how frequently they are used and in the vegetation type in which they are located. Measured data include plant species found as well as percent cover of vegetation, litter, bare soil, rock, and cryptogams. Physical soil properties such as bulk density, infiltration rate and soil moisture were also measured in 1984.
  • Priority Categories: conditions, trends, use, and environmental factors
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2012-0001

39. Spanish Peaks in the Lee Metcalf Wilderness, 1972, 1988, 2004 – Baseline campsite data for sites near lakes

  • Abstract: This data product contains the numbers and condition of campsites around lakes in the Spanish Peaks portion of the Lee Metcalf Wilderness in Montana. Measurements were taken in 1972, 1988, and again in 2004. Measurements include data such as campsite condition, vegetation type, distance to water, distance to trails, distance to nearest campsite, facility information, vegetation, soils, tree damage rating, max party size, type of use, etc.
  • Priority Categories: Campsite condition monitoring
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2012-0002

40. Bob Marshall Wilderness, 1981 and 1990 – Campsite conditions
Abstract: This data product contains conditions of 36 campsites in low- to mid- elevation forests and grasslands in the Bob Marshall Wilderness, Montana. Campsites used in this study were used primarily by backpackers, private individuals with packstock, and commercial outfitters and their clients. Campsites were assessed in 1981 and 1990. Camp area, bare area, and extent of tree damage were measured. Tree seedlings, ground vegetation, duff, mineral soil exposure and compaction, species composition, and infiltration rates were also measured on campsites and comparable control sites.
Priority Categories: Campsite condition monitoring, specific use impacts, compare low- to high-elevation campsite impacts
Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2012-0003

41. Eagle Cap Wilderness, 1979, 1984, 1990, 2005/2006, 2009, 2001 – Campsite conditions

  • Abstract: This data product contains conditions of 26 campsites in forested sites in subalpine lake basins in the Eagle Cap Wilderness, Oregon. Campsites in this study were used primarily by backpackers and varied in usage level. Campsites were assessed in 1979, 1984, 1990, and 2005/2006 (campsites 1 and 2 were remeasured in 2011 and 2009, respectively). Basic campsite information, tree and seedling counts, tree damage, ground vegetation, duff, and species composition were measured on campsites and comparable control sites.
  • Priority Categories: Campsite conditions, trends, use, and environmental factors
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2012-0004

42. Miller Peak Wilderness, 2008 – Baseline campsite conditions

  • Abstract: This data product contains baseline (2008) campsite conditions for all 44 campsites found along all trails other than the Sunnyside Canyon Trail in the Miller Peak Wilderness in Arizona. Measurements include basic campsite information such as groundcover disturbance, impact to standing trees and roots, and size of disturbed area. If campsites had more than minimal disturbance, other measurements were taken such as vegetation type, soils, dominant species, landform, distance to trail, distance to water, number of fire rings, tree damage, and other standard campsite data.
  • Priority Categories: Campsite conditions
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2012-0005

43. Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, 1977, 1989, 2001 and 2002 – Baseline campsite conditions and change over time

  • Abstract: This data product contains baseline campsite condition data and trend for campsites in the Bear Creek, Big Creek, and Sweeney Creek drainages in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, Montana. These drainages represent varied use intensity. Big Creek was selected as a high-use drainage. Bear Creek was considered to be moderate-use drainage and Sweeney Creek was considered a low-use drainage. In each drainage, the most likely places for camping were searched and all campsites in these areas were located. Measurements include basic campsite information such as groundcover disturbance, impact to standing trees and roots, and size of disturbed area. If campsites had more than minimal disturbance, other measurements were taken such as vegetation type, vegetation coverage, soils, dominant species, landform, distance to trail, distance to water, number of fire rings, tree damage, campsite disturbance, and other standard campsite data.
  • Priority Categories: Change in numbers of campsites and conditions

44. Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, Idaho, 1993-1998 – Campsite assessments for effectiveness of stock confinement strategy

  • Abstract: Measurements of ground cover conditions, tree impacts, and campsite conditions were taken in the Seven Lakes Basin in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness between 1993 and 1998 in order to assess bringing high levels of campsite impact into compliance with management standards. Specifically, data measurements included size of disturbed and bare areas, amount of bole scarring and root exposure on affected trees, percentage of natural and exotic vegetation cover, as well as number of live, dead, and cut trees and stumps. Campsite data collected included percentage of vegetation cover, mineral exposure, vegetation loss, and increase in soil minerals. Impacts to trees were assessed by collecting data on number of trees scarred or felled, tree damage, number of tree with exposed roots, level of root exposure, and number of fire scars. General campsite information was also collected, such as campsite development rating, cleanliness rating, number of social trails, and trail ratings.
  • Priority Categories: Pack stock impacts on campsites
  • Found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2005-0002

45. Wilderness and roadless areas in Montana, Idaho and California, 1970-1971 – Use patterns and visitor characteristics, attitudes, and preferences in nine wilderness and roadless areas

  • Abstract: Presents a summary and analysis of data from a survey of visitors to eight wildernesses and related areas in the Montana and idaho Rockies and to one wilderness in the California Sierra nevadas. Basic data on use patterns, including types of groups, activities, travel behavior, visitor characteristivs, motives for visits, satisfation with conditions experienced, and preferences for management actions are described and compared among areas, between day users and campers, horsemen and hikers, and summer and fall visitors. management implications are discussed.
  • Priority Categories: types of use, visitor preferences, characteristics and attitudes
  • Not yet available online

46. Bob Marshall, Bridger, and High Uintas Wildernesses and Boundary Waters Canoe Area, 1969 – Visitor perceptions of wilderness recreation carrying capacity

  • Abstract: Nearly 500 visitors to four wildernesses were surveyed including the Bob Marshall Wilderness in Montana, Bridger Wilderness in Wyoming, the High Uintas Wilderness in Utah, and the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) in Minnesota. Data includes a completed questionnaire designed to obtain data on four parameters of use that could potentially affect capacity standards: (1) Level of use encountered; (2) type of use encountered; (3) location of encounters; and (4) effects of depreciative behavior (littering).
  • Priority Categories: Visitor attitudes toward use
  • Not yet available online